Terms Used In Welding Operations

Welding is an operation that is used to join two pieces of metal together, and if you work in an environment that involves manufacturing or engineering, you may be exposed to this technique.

Some of the terms include the following:

1. Pulsing;

Pulsing refers to the amount of current, frequency, and duration of the welding arc is sequenced and controlled.

2. Reactor (arc welding);

A device that is used in arc welding circuits to reduce irregularities in the welding current flow.

3. Reinforcement of weld;

Reinforcement of weld is a weld metal in excess of what is needed to fill a junction

4. Residual stress;

Stress that remains in a structure or member as a result of thermal, mechanical, or combined treatments. The molten material compresses when it cools from the solidus to room temperature, which causes stress in fusion welding.

5. Resistance Spot Welding (RSW);

A method of joining two pieces of metal by sending electricity between electrodes on opposing sides of the parts to be welded. This procedure has no arc.

6. Reverse polarity;

Occurs when a receptacle is wired in reverse. This occurs when the “hot” wire, often known as the black or red wire, is connected to the neutral side and the neutral wire is connected to the “hot” side.

7. Robotic Welder;

A completely or partially automated equipment that has a welding head and is linked to a welding power source. A robotic arm is often the mobile component of a robotic welder.

8. Root crack;

A weld fracture or heat-affected zone that occurs near the weld’s root.

A crack that develops in an over-welded piece of metal. This crack runs vertically through the weld and is located at the base of the joint.

9. Root opening;

The distance between members at the root of the joint is usually measured as one-half a unit from each of the joint roots.

10. Root face;

That section of the groove face closest to the joint’s root.

The side of the joint, on which the weld root is located. The root face is usually the outer surface of the welded part and serves as a base for the structure that is welded.

11. Root of joint;

Refers to that segment of a welded junction where the parts are closest to each other. The root of the joint in cross section might be a point, a line, or an area.

12. Root of weld;

The cross-sectional places where the back of the weld joins the base metal surfaces.

13. Root penetration;

The distance, measured along the middle line of the joint’s root cross section,that a weld penetrates into the root of a joint.

14. Root reinforcement;

A reinforcement of the welding done on the side opposite to the one from where the welding was done.

15. Scratch Start TIG;

During the TIG welding process, one popular way for striking an arc includes dragging the tungsten electrode across the surface of the metal.

This is done in order to create a spark. The beginning of a TIG weld using this procedure is not the cleanest option. Stick welders may be modified to perform scratch TIG welding by attaching an air-cooled TIG torch and using argon gas as the shielding gas.

16. Seam weld;

A continuous weld created between or upon overlapping members, in which coalescence may start and occur on the faying surfaces, or may have progressed from the surface of one member.

This type of weld can be made between or onto overlapping members. A single weld bead or a succession of overlapping spot welds might make up the continuous weld that is being created here.

17. Secondary circuit;

Secondary circuit is that component of a welding machine which transmits the secondary current between the secondary terminals of the welding transformers and the electrode, or electrodes and task.

18. Semi-automatic arc welding;

Semi -automatic arc welding refers to welding using an arc equipment that merely regulates the feed rate of the filler metal. The forward progress of the welding must be regulated manually.

19. Series submerged arc welding;

Series submerged arc welding is a variation on the submerged arc welding method in which an electric current is established between two (consumable) electrodes that meet just above the surface of the work.

This creates a weld that has a smoother finish. The labor is not involved in the operation of the electrical circuit.

20. Shielded carbon arc welding;

Shielded carbon arc welding is a variant on the carbon arc welding procedure that creates coalescence of metals by heating them with an electric arc that runs between a carbon electrode and the work. Either the burning of a solid substance that is fed into the arc or the application of a blanket of flux to the work, or both, can provide a shielding effect. Both pressure and filler metal are options that might be utilized in this process. However, they are not required.

21. Shielded metal arc welding;

A method of arc welding is one that involves heating the metals to the point of coalescence using an arc that is formed between a covered metal electrode and the object being welded. Decomposition of the covering of the electrodes results in the production of shielding.

There is no application of pressure, and the filler metal is harvested from the electrode. Stick welding is another name for SMAW, along with MMA and MMAW (manual metal arc welding). MMA is an abbreviation for manual metal arc welding.

22. Shielding gas;

Shielding gas is a type of gas that is used to protect atmospheres from contamination. The shielding gas is usually supplied to the welder, with the atmosphere.

The proximity of the welding operation to a source of ignition such as natural gas or gasoline may result in a fire hazard.

23. Short circuiting transfer;

A process of metal transfer in which melted material from a consumable electrode is deposited during repeated short circuits. The transfer mechanism is the same as the one used in true dual-arc welding.

24. Shrinkage void;

A cavity-type discontinuity generally generated by shrinkage during solidification.

When a material cools, portions of it shrink as well as contract. The shrinkage void is the space that has been formed between the shrunk and contracted materials.

25. Single-phase circuit;

An electrical circuit producing just one alternating cycle throughout a 360-degree time period.

26. Slot weld;

A weld that is formed inside of an extended hole in one of the members of a lap or T-joint, attaching that member to the piece of the surface of the other member that is exposed via the hole.

The weld metal may only fill the hole partially or fully, and the hole may have an open end at one of its ends. (It is important to note that a fillet-welded slot should not be considered to be in compliance with this criterion.)

27. Slugging;

The process of inserting a separate piece or pieces of material in a joint before to or during the welding process, which results in a welded connection that does not conform with the specifications of the design, drawing, or specification.

28. Spacer strip;

A metal strip or bar that has been prepared for a groove weld and is put in the root of a joint to act as a backing and to preserve root opening when welding.

This is done in preparation for a groove weld. In addition to this, it can bridge a gap that is unusually large because of improper fit-up.

29. Spray transfer

Spray transfer is a kind of metal transfer in which molten filler metal is transmitted axially across the arc in tiny droplets.

30. Staggered intermittent fillet welding

Two lines of interrupted fillet welding on a joint, with the fillet weld adjustments in one line offset relative to those in the other line.

31. Stitch welding;

Involves utilizing intermittent welds to unite two or more components.

Stitch welding is a process of joining two members by heating them with a single stream of filler metal, which is shaped into the required shape. Through this process the extended weld edge occurring at the junction of the two members may be concealed.

32. Stripping;

The process of removing portions of filler metal and electrodes from an existing weldment before adding a new portion. It is possible to remove only a portion of an electrode before adding another electrode and thus make possible that continuity is maintained.

33. Stranded electrode;

Stranded electrode refers to a composite filler metal electrode which is composed of stranded wires that may encapsulate components to increase characteristics, stabilize the arc, or offer shielding.

34. Stud Welding;

A technique for affixing a fastener, nut, or bolt to a metal base. Mostly during stud welding process, typically threaded, unthreaded, or tapped fasteners are utilized.

35. Tungsten;

Tungsten refers to a rare metal with an unusually high melting point (3410 degrees Celsius). Used in the production of TIG electrodes.

36. Tungsten electrode;

A tungsten-based non-filler metal electrode is used in arc welding or cutting.

37. Weld gauge;

Welding gauges are examination gauges that are used to examine alignments, measurements before welding, weld dimensions, and porosity of welds. Some gauges are multifunctional while others are single purpose.

38. Weld metal;

That portion of a weld which has been melted during welding. It also refers to that portion of a weld which has been melted during welding. In other words, it implies the metal of a weld which stays attached to the base metal after welding is complete.

39. Weld metal area;

Refers to the cross section of a weld and can be measured in several ways: the area, the length, the thickness, or the projected area. In order for this area to be measured, the weld metal needs to be removed. This can be done by wiping away the excess weld metal or by using a special type of welding machine, called a wire feeder.

40. Weld ability;

The ability of a material to be welded into a specific, adequately designed structure under the fabrication circumstances imposed and to function successfully in the intended service.

41. Welding process;

A materials joining procedure that creates coalescence of materials by heating them to appropriate temperatures, with or without the use of pressure, or with just pressure, and with or without the use of filler metal.

42. Wetting;

The phenomenon whereby a liquid filler metal or flux spreads and adheres in a thin continuous layer on a solid base metal.

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